تحقیق انگلیسی مدیریت دانش
Dr. Radhika Kapur
Within the organizations, it is apparent that human resources are required to up-grade their knowledge, skills and abilities in order to carry out their job duties satisfactorily and achieve organizational and personal goals. When the human resources are to work on a project or they need to conduct presentations or they need to communicate with the clients in terms of products and services and so forth, they need to possess adequate knowledge. In order to up-grade one’s knowledge, it is vital for the individuals to make use of methods and approaches. Furthermore, maintaining connections and getting engaged in effective communication processes are also regarded as indispensable in up-grading one’s knowledge. When the human resource possess sufficient knowledge in terms of their job duties, job responsibilities and organization as a whole, they are able to benefit, achieve the desired goals and incur job satisfaction. The main areas that have been taken into account in this research paper are, significance of knowledge management, models of knowledge management cycle, factors stimulating knowledge management, knowledge management issues, and the contribution of human resources to knowledge management.
Keywords: Concepts, Human Resources, Knowledge Management, Methods, Models, Organization
Knowledge is referred to the information, facts, data and understanding of various concepts and topics. When the individuals are studying in educational institutions or they are in jobs, enhancing the knowledge and acquiring an efficient understanding of the concepts, methods and procedures is indispensable. Acquisition of knowledge renders a significant contribution in enabling the individuals to augment their career prospects. Knowledge management as a field of study has existed for more than 30 years. The concept of knowledge has been closely connected to the academic field, but now it has moved beyond the academic theory to an essential component of organizational life. Within the organizations, in order to carry out various tasks and activities, the individuals need to possess knowledge in terms of various aspects. The main question that has been arising within the mind-sets of the individuals is where knowledge management came from. Knowledge management is a conscious strategy of providing the right knowledge to the right people at the right time. In other words, it is termed as helping the individuals share and put the information into action in ways that strive to improve organizational performance. Knowledge management draws from existing resources that organization may already have in place of good information systems, management, organizational change, and human resource management practices (Girard & Girard, 2015).
In the case of human resources, knowledge management is the process of efficiently organising, analysing, retrieving and using and in some cases monetising knowledge. Knowledge management is the discipline that promotes an integrated approach to identify, manage, share and leverage an organization’s knowledge and information assets through the policies, measures, strategies, applications and technologies. The knowledge has to be shared. The superiors impart knowledge to the subordinates in terms of the implementation of organizational structure. Whereas, the subordinates also impart information to their superiors, provided they are aware. Within the organization, it is necessary to form a culture that would promote knowledge management in the climate of trust and openness (Girard & Girard, 2015). When the members of the organization are imparting knowledge, they need to ensure that knowledge is accurate and truthful. Efficiency in knowledge management can be promoted, when the terms and relationships between the members are pleasant and amiable.
Knowledge management is the systematic management of an organization’s knowledge assets for creating value and meeting tactical and strategic requirements. It consists of the initiatives, processes, strategies and systems that sustain and augment the assessment, distribution, enhancement, formation and storage of knowledge. Every organization has to define and understand knowledge management, taking into consideration its goals and objectives. Knowledge management is primarily concerned with applying knowledge in previous situations, which are overburdened, and exploited as well as novice situations (Knowledge Management, 2019). The members of the organization need to acquire an efficient understanding in terms of ways and approaches that are required for dealing with problems and challenges.
Significance of Knowledge Management
The significance of knowledge management is recognised comprehensively in the fact that knowledge helps in the enrichment of job performance as well as lives of the individuals. Knowledge management is seen as a continuous cycle of the three processes, namely, knowledge creation and improvement, knowledge distribution and circulation and knowledge addition and application. Knowledge management expresses a thoughtful, systematic and a harmonized approach to ensure the complete utilization of the organization’s knowledge base. It is combined with the potential of individual’s competencies, abilities, thoughts, innovations, technologies and pioneering methods. These are regarded as some of the crucial aspects that lead to enrichment of knowledge. In the management of knowledge, the areas of holding and storing are regarded as important (Knowledge Management, 2019).
There are three distinct perspectives of knowledge management, which leads to a different estimation and a different situation. Knowledge management is the business activity with two primary aspects. Executing the knowledge component of business activity as an explicit concern of the business strategy, policy and practice at all levels of the organization. Maintaining a connection between an organization’s intellectual assets, both explicit (recorded) and tacit (personal know-how) and positive business results is also vital aspect of knowledge management. Knowledge management is the transformation of knowledge in the form of insights, understandings and practical know-how that one possesses through the use of books, articles, other reading materials and technologies. After acquiring knowledge, it is vital for the members of the organization to make use of it efficiently in order to achieve organizational goals (Knowledge Management, 2019).
The significance of knowledge management is highlighted in four key areas, which have been stated as follows: (Knowledge Management, 2019).
Globalization of Business – Organizations in the present existence are more
universal, i.e. they are operating in multiple sites and locations. They are different from others in terms of various aspects, such as, organization of tasks and activities, goals and objectives and so forth. The organizations are multicultural and multilingual in nature. This aspect indicates that members are different from each other in terms of various aspects, such as, caste, creed, race, religion, culture, ethnicity, age, gender, educational qualifications, competencies and socio-economic background. The members of the organization need to integrate with each other in an appropriate manner in order to augment knowledge and understanding in terms of various aspects.
Leaner Organizations – Organizations are adopting a lean strategy, where they generate awareness in terms of customer value and focus upon the key processes to increase it on a continuous basis. In other words, meeting the customer needs and requirements are regarded as an integral part of the members of the organization. The ultimate goal is to make provision of the perfect value to the customer through a perfect value creation process that would utilize the resources in an appropriate manner. Within leaner organizations, the individuals need to ensure that they utilize their resources efficiently and prevent misuse and wastage.
Research – Within some organizations, the individuals need to augment their knowledge and understanding not only in terms of performance of job duties, but also in terms of other aspects within as well as outside the organization. In order to augment their knowledge, they need to conduct research through various sources. In the present existence, the individuals are making use of technologies to a major extent to augment their knowledge in terms of various areas. For instance, when the individuals are working on projects, they need to make use of various sources to carry out their job duties in a well-organized manner.
Technological Enhancements – It is comprehensively understood that technological enhancements are regarded to be of utmost significance in the implementation of tasks and activities in various types of organizations. Technological enhancements are taking place with the advent of websites, smartphones and other latest technologies. Advancements in technologies has not only helped in better connectivity between the individuals, but also brought about transformations in the expectations. In order to fulfil customer needs and requirements, enhance productivity and profitability and achieve organizational goals, the organizations are expected to have an online presence. Hence, research has indicated that through technological enhancements, various types of organizations are carrying out their tasks and activities in a well-organized manner.
Knowledge management serves as one of the major responses to the challenges of making an attempt to deal with problems and challenges. Knowledge management is also best clustered as the science of management (Knowledge Management, 2019).
Models of Knowledge Management Cycle
Knowledge management cycle is the process of transforming information into knowledge within an organization. It provides explanation in terms of how knowledge is acquired, processed and distributed within the organization. The models of knowledge management cycle have been stated as follows: (Knowledge Management, 2019).
Zack Knowledge Management Model
The Zack model is extracted from the work on the design and development of information products. In Meyer’s and Zack’s approach, the network between each stage is designed to be logical and worthwhile. The stages are acquisition of data or information, refinement, storage, distribution and presentation. Acquisition deals with the issues concerning the origin of raw materials, such as, scope, breath, depth, credibility, accuracy, timeliness, relevance, cost, control and exclusivity. Refinement may be physical like migrating from one medium to another or logical like restructuring, relabeling, indexing and integrating. Refining also involves cleaning and sanitizing the content to ensure complete anonymity of sources and the individuals involved. Storage or retrieval forms a bridge between the upstream addition and refinement stages that feed the repository and downstream stages of product generation. Storage of knowledge can be physical in files and folders or it can be digital in the form of database or knowledge management software.
Distribution defines how the product is to be delivered to the end-users, such as, fax, print, email and includes not only the medium of delivery, but also its timing, frequency, form, language and so forth. In the case of presentation, context plays an important role. The performance of each of the preceding value-added steps is evaluated here. For example, it needs to be found out, whether the user have enough context to be able to make use of the content. The repository and the refinery combined enable the management to have valuable knowledge of a firm. In this cycle, there is also an impression of having to continually renew the repository and refinery in order to avoid elimination. The Meyer and Zack model is one of the most complete picture of the key elements engaged in the knowledge management model. The notion of refinement is one, which is most important and it is the one neglected.
Bukowitz and Williams Model
Bukowitz and Williams portray a knowledge management process framework that signifies how the organizations generate, maintain and augment a strategically correct stock of knowledge to create value. In this framework, knowledge includes knowledge repositories, relationships, information technologies, communications, infrastructure, functional skills set, processes know-how, environmental responsiveness, organizational intelligence and external sources. These stages aim on more long-range processes of matching intellectual capital to strategic needs. The get stage consists of seeking out information needed to make decisions, solve problems and innovate. Use stage is the next stage. In this stage, it deals with how to combine information in novice, motivating and thought-provoking ways in order to promote modern, scientific and innovative methods in the organization of tasks and activities. Major focus is put upon individuals rather than on groups.
The learn stage puts emphasis upon the formal processes of learning from experiences as a means of creating a competitive plan. Learning in enterprises is important because it causes transformation between the application of ideas and the generation of new ones. This is apparent that getting engaged in learning will help in generation of ideas and perspectives. The contribute stage of the knowledge management cycle deals with the encouragement of employees to the post, what they have learned to the communal knowledge base like a repository. This is one of the most effectual ways through which individual knowledge can be presented to the organisation, where it is required. Presentations are regarded to be worthwhile and meaningful ways of making provision of knowledge to the entire organization. Assess stage is the stage, which involves putting into practice the methods and approaches, which help the individuals in identifying the flaws and inconsistencies and bringing about improvements. In other words, the knowledge attained by the individuals should be meaningful and worthwhile to others as well as the organization as a whole.
McElroy model outlines the knowledge life cycle that consists of the processes of knowledge production and knowledge integration, with the series of feedback loops to organizational memory, beliefs, and claims and the business processing environment. Problem claim formulation is an attempt to learn and state the specific nature of the detached knowledge gap. Knowledge claim formulation acts as a response to approved problem claims via information acquisition and individuals and group learning. New knowledge claims are tested and examined through the knowledge claim evaluation processes. Evaluation of knowledge claims results in the knowledge claims that will be integrated as new organizational knowledge or undecided knowledge claims. Experience gained from the application of knowledge in the organizational base leads to new claims and resulting beliefs, stimulating the cycle to begin all over again.
In the McElroy model, the main stages that are taken into account are, learning, validation, acquisition, integration and completion. In knowledge production, the primary processes are, individual and group learning, knowledge claim formulation, information acquisition, codified knowledge claim and knowledge claim evaluation. One of the advantages of the McElroy model is the clear description of how knowledge is examined and a conscious decision is made as to whether or not it will be included into the organizational memory. The authorization of knowledge is the step that clearly differentiates knowledge management from document management. The primary objective of the knowledge management cycle is to put into practice the methods and procedures to identify the knowledge content that is valuable and meaningful to the organization and its members.
WIIG takes into consideration the three conditions, which needs to be presented within the organization to achieve the desired goals and objectives. WIIG takes into account the major purpose of knowledge management as an effort to promote enrichment within the organization by facilitating creation, accumulation, deployment and use of quality knowledge. In this model, the major stages that are highlighted are, creation, sourcing, compilation, transformation and application. Creation of knowledge takes place through various ways, such as, books, articles, reading materials, technologies, internet, communication with others and so forth. Sourcing is concerned with tracking and locating the knowledge. For instance, when the individuals need to acquire information in terms of creative ideas and designs regarding production of various kinds of artworks, then internet will be one of the most effective and meaningful source in augmenting one’s knowledge.
Compilation is the process that is concerned with gathering, collecting and accumulation of information. For instance, when the individuals are working on a research project and they have collected data and information. When it is collected, it is in an unorganized form, therefore, compilation is the process that involves organization of data in a systematic and methodical manner. Transformation is a process, which is of utmost significance. It involves transformation of knowledge from one individual to another or others. Within the organization, the transformation of knowledge takes place through verbal as well as written communication. When the superiors are imparting knowledge to their subordinates, they need to make sure that they are able to benefit from it. Application of knowledge is vital in achieving the desired outcomes. Throughout their jobs, it is vital for the individuals to enhance their knowledge. When they acquire knowledge, they need to put it into operation to obtain the desired outcomes. Therefore, it can be stated, these five stages are essential to implement effective knowledge management.
Factors Stimulating Knowledge Management
The factors stimulating knowledge management have been stated as follows: (Introducing Knowledge Management, n.d.).
Increasing Field Intricacies
Within the course of performance of one’s job duties, the individuals need to experience number of problems and challenges. When they have generated awareness in terms of utilization of modern and innovative methods, they need to put them into practice to enhance productivity and profitability. In some cases, the employees feel confident, whereas, in other cases, they feel apprehensive and vulnerable. Apprehensiveness and vulnerability in making use of modern, scientific and innovative methods are the factors that enables the individuals to augment their knowledge base. Within the organization, the arising of various problems and difficulties enable the workforce to stimulate knowledge management. Therefore, it can be stated that when the members of the organization experience an increase in the field intricacies, they need to stimulate knowledge management to carry out their job duties smoothly.
Accelerating Market Volatility
There has been an increase in the market volatility. The increase in the market volatility, and demands and requirements of the customers stimulate knowledge management. The pace of change or volatility in each market domain has increased rapidly in the past decade. In the markets, the competition is high. Accelerating market volatility enables the members of the organization to augment their knowledge base, so they will be able to develop innovative and pioneering products. Research has indicated that in some cases, the production and manufacturing organizations introduce new products every year with advanced technologies. It is apparent that to introduce new and innovative products, they need to augment their understanding in terms of technical and pioneering methods. Therefore, aspiration to introduce new products and accelerating market volatility are important factors in stimulating knowledge management.
Intensified Speed of Responsiveness
The time needed to put into practice the methods and approaches, based upon subtle changes within and across the domains is decreasing. In other words, in some cases, the time available to carry out various tasks and activities is not sufficient. The employees need to implement proper time management skills to ensure they are able to achieve personal as well as professional goals. Changes are an integral part of the organizations. In order to cope with changes, it is necessary to augment ones knowledge and understanding in terms of various aspects. Research has indicated that it is crucial to bring about changes in the working environmental conditions as well. The members of the organization are required to organize discussion meetings, where individuals have the right to express their viewpoints regarding changes brought about in the infrastructural facilities, changes in technologies, formulation of measures, programs and procedures and so forth. But it needs to be ensured that through knowledge management proper time management skills are implemented.
Causing a Reduction in Employee Experience
Research has indicated that in some cases, employees continue to perform the same job duties for long period of time and they do not experience any kinds of transformations. Performing same kinds of job duties and not acquiring promotional opportunities causes reduction in the experience of the employees. When they feel that they are working in the same department and not acquiring any promotional opportunities, they form the viewpoint that they need to augment their knowledge and develop the capabilities to promote their development and well-being. High employee turnover rates have resulted in individuals with the decision making authority having less tenure within their organizations than ever before. Therefore, it can be stated that reduction in the employee experience is one of the important factors in stimulating knowledge management.
Knowledge Management Issues
The issues in terms of knowledge management have been stated as follows: (Armstrong & Taylor, 2014).
The Pace of Change
One of the major issues in the case of knowledge management is how to keep up with the pace at which changes are taking place. The knowledge has to be in accordance to the changes. When changes take place within and outside the organization and influences the work duties of the employees, it is vital for them to identify what knowledge needs to be acquired and imparted to others. In some cases, the occurrence of changes may be instant. Therefore, it is vital for the members of the organization at all levels to form the knowledge base in such a manner to cope with problems and challenges.
Relating Knowledge Management Strategy to Business Strategy
It is not the knowledge, but the way it is applied to the strategic objectives that is the critical ingredient in the competitiveness. In other words, the knowledge management strategy has to be related to the business strategy. They suggest that the competitive strategy must drive the knowledge management strategy. The main question that arises is how does the knowledge that resides in the company add value for the customers? In other words, there should be a correlation between the knowledge management strategy and business strategy. The members of the organization need to augment their knowledge base in accordance to the organizational goals and objectives.
Technology and People
Technology is regarded as indispensable in the implementation of tasks and activities. Within the organization, the individuals are not only making use of technologies in carrying out management, administrative, clerical, technical and other job duties but the workforce are also making use of technologies in the production of goods. The significance of technologies have been recognized on a comprehensive basis and it is vital for the individuals to be well-equipped with different types of technologies. In some cases, the individuals may not feel comfortable in making use of them, but thorough practice makes them well-equipped with various types of technologies. Within organizations, various types of technologies used are, computers, I pads, smartphones, printers, scanners and photo-copiers.
The Significance of Communication Process
Within the organization, it is vital for the individuals to develop effective links with each other. Communication can be verbal and written. Verbal communication takes place between individuals either face to face or over the phone. Whereas, written communication are in the form of letters, emails, messages, notices and so forth. Communication takes place from superiors to subordinates, which is downward communication. It takes place from subordinates to superiors, which is upward communication and takes place between colleagues, who are working at the same level. When the individuals are communicating with each other, it is vital for them to make use of polite and decent language. Effective communication is indispensable in the achievement of organizational goals.
Knowledge workers are the workers, who have high levels of education. They are well-educated, skilled and proficient. Their educational qualifications, skills and proficiency are the major instruments in the achievement of desired goals and objectives. On the other hand, they even make use of their education and competencies in providing solutions to the problems. Knowledge management is about motivating the knowledge workers towards the performance of their job duties. Within the organization, when they are acquiring training, they are able to enrich their knowledge. Therefore, one of the factors that is of utmost significance is knowledge workers need to make use of their knowledge appropriately. The main purpose of making use of knowledge in an efficient manner is to provide solutions to the issues that may arise within the course of achievement of desired goals and objectives.
The Contribution of Human Resources to Knowledge Management
Human resources can make an important contribution to knowledge management simply because knowledge is shared between individuals. It is not just the matter of generating information in terms of various aspects and fields, through conducting research, but individuals can also augment their understanding through getting engaged in effective communication with others. The role of human resources is to observe that the organization has the intellectual capital it needs. The resource-based view of the organization puts emphasis upon the fact that distinctive human resource practices help to create unique competencies that differentiate products and services and in turn drive competitiveness. Human resources can render a significant contribution by providing ideas on culture management, organization design and development and by establishing learning and communication programs and systems (Armstrong & Taylor, 2014). This can be carried out through the following ways: (Armstrong & Taylor, 2014).
Development of Culture – Within the organization, it is vital for the individuals to develop the climate of culture. Through culture, the individuals generate information in terms of norms, values, morality and ethics that are needed to achieve organizational goals. Organizational culture is the beliefs, assumptions, values and ways of interacting that contribute to the unique social and psychological environment of the organization (What is Organizational Culture? 2019). Apart from the implementation of job duties, it is vital for the individuals to accept cultures and make provision of equal rights and opportunities to all. Therefore, the human resources are the ones, who need to provide ideas and perspectives needed to enrich organizational culture. In the open culture, values and norms are the ones that focus upon the significance of sharing knowledge.
Promoting Commitment and Trust – Commitment and trust are indispensable factors that are of utmost significance in achieving organizational goals. The reason being, individuals cannot carry out their job duties in isolation, they need to work in collaboration with others. When the individuals are working in integration, it is vital for them to trust each other. On the other hand, commitment towards job duties is important. When the members of the organization are committed towards job duties, they will be able to fulfil job expectations, carry out their job duties in a well-organized manner, maintain effective terms and relationships with others and depict honesty and truthfulness.
Designing and Developing Organizations – Designing and development of the organizations are crucial. There is a strong correlation between the job duties and designing and development of the organizations. When the human resources are carrying out their job duties, they need to ensure that they are working efficiently towards the attainment of organizational goals. The designing and development of the organizations takes place through networks, teamwork and communities of practice. It is apparent that when the members of the organization are working on designing and development of the organizations, they need to augment their understanding and acquire knowledge in terms of various aspects.
Providing Resourcing Services – The human resources need to provide resourcing services that ensure that valued employees, who can contribute to knowledge creation and sharing are attracted and retained. In order to lead to success of the organization, it is essential for the human resources to make provision of adequate resources. These include, financial resources, human resources, infrastructure, civic amenities, technologies and other materials and facilities. In providing resource services too, they need to possess adequate knowledge and conduct analysis in terms of the areas, which need to be improved. The competent and capable employees, who possess sufficient knowledge and are contributing towards the performance of job duties need to be attracted and retained.
Motivating the Workforce – Motivating the workforce involves implementing the ideas and methods that would stimulate their mind-sets and enable them to arouse interest and enthusiasm towards the implementation of job duties. There are number of methods and strategies that need to be put into practice to motivate the workforce. Job rotation is one of the essential aspects, which enables the employees to get engaged in other jobs, where they are able to augment their knowledge and skills. Another important aspect of motivating the employees is giving rewards and incentives. Within the course of performance of their job duties, it is vital to ensure that the workforce do not find job duties monotonous.
Development of Performance Management Process – When the job performance of the employees is time consuming and has to go through various stages, especially in such cases, it is vital to augment knowledge in terms of development of performance management process. Performance management process have the primary objective of achieving the desired goals and objectives. In order to put into operation this task in a well-organized manner, it is vital to acquire knowledge. The workforce acquire knowledge in terms of the processes through attending training programs, conducting research through books, reading materials and technologies and through communicating with supervisors and colleagues.
Development of Processes of Organizational and Individual Learning – When the members of the organization are required to augment their understanding and acquire knowledge in terms of various aspects, they need to ensure, they acquire significant and meaningful information, which would enrich their job performance. The heads and directors of the organization are the ones, who need to work towards development of the processes of individual and organizational learning. Upon acquisition of knowledge, it is vital for the managers and supervisors to impart it to the workforce. Besides imparting knowledge, it is vital for the superiors to ensure the knowledge is beneficial in the implementation of tasks and functions.
Organization of Workshops, Seminars and Conferences – Organization of workshops, seminars and conferences are an integral part of organizations. The primary objective of organization of workshops is to enhance knowledge among individuals in terms of the aspects, which they find difficult to learn. Therefore, in workshops, in some cases, experts are even invited from other organizations, who participate in augmenting knowledge among the workforce. Seminars and conferences are organized on the basis of a particular topic. When the employers possess the viewpoint that employees need to augment their understanding in terms of particular areas, they organize seminars and conferences. In these, presentations are also made by the members of the organization in terms of various areas, related to the main topic.
Using Information Technology for Development of Systems – Making use of information technology for development of systems and augmenting knowledge is regarded as an essential aspect for the members of the organization. In this manner, they would not only achieve professional goals, but personal goals as well. Information technology in the present existence has rendered a significant contribution in augmenting knowledge among the individuals. Research has indicated that when individuals are making use of internet to augment their understanding in terms of various areas, the knowledge that they acquire is comprehensive. But, they need to ensure they make use of that knowledge, which is worthwhile.
Supporting Knowledge Management Initiatives – Supporting knowledge management initiatives is regarded as one of the essential areas that human resources need to put into operation in terms of knowledge management. The initiatives need to be supported by the members of the organization at all levels to promote knowledge management. It is of utmost significance that the foundation for a meaningful knowledge management initiative should be a clear underlying vision (Knowledge Management Strategy, n.d.). Supporting knowledge management initiatives is regarded to be indispensable in the achievement of organizational goals. This task has to be focused upon by the members of the organization throughout their jobs.
Knowledge is referred to as information, facts and data, which the individuals need to augment on a regular basis. Within the organizations, the individuals need to work efficiently and on regular basis to augment their knowledge in terms of various aspects. They need to augment their knowledge in terms of utilization of modern, scientific, technical and pioneering methods. Through the acquisition of knowledge, the individuals are able to enrich their job performance and attain the desired outcomes. Knowledge management is seen as a continuous cycle of the three processes, namely, knowledge creation and improvement, knowledge distribution and circulation and knowledge addition and application. It is the primary job duty of the managers and leaders to impart knowledge to the workforce, so they are able to carry out their job duties resourcefully and conscientiously. The members of the organization at all levels are required to work towards enhancement of knowledge on a continuous basis.
In the management of knowledge, there are number of aspects that need to be taken into consideration. These include, conducting research on regular basis through reading of books, articles and other reading materials; augmenting one’s understanding of the concepts through internet; making field-visits to various places, as practical experience will help in acquiring an efficient understanding of the concepts; maintaining files, and documents; saving information in computers, CDs or pen-drives and application of knowledge has to be in accordance to the tasks and activities that are being performed. It is vital for the members of the organization to make sure they keep themselves up-dated in terms of changes and developments taking place and enhance their knowledge accordingly. Besides enhancing knowledge, it is vital for the members to be aware in terms of the factors that are needed to maintain it. Finally, it can be stated knowledge management is regarded as one of the essential aspects in performing job duties satisfactorily and achievement of organizational goals.
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